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[综合] 英语十分钟/移民究竟给英国带来了贫穷还是富裕?

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发表于 2020-10-9 11:25:09 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
英语十分钟/移民究竟给英国带来了贫穷还是富裕?
来自“经济学人”

Does immigration import inequality?
A new paper suggests that immigration has had a central role in the riseof the very rich
That income inequality hasrisen more sharply in Anglo-Saxon countries than in continental Europe and Asiais not much debated. The reasons for it are Tax policy, looser regulation offinancial services, performance pay for chief executives and culture are amongthe usual suspects.
In a new paper, a group ofeconomists at the University of Warwick, employing an unusual data set, haveprovided evidence to implicate another culprit:immigration.
The researchers looked atthe National Insurance (NI) numbers of British taxpayers. The data areanonymised, but Britons are assigned NI numbers when they are 16, so thosewhose numbers were assigned later are bound to be immigrants.
People tend to think ofimmigrants as poor, but the research shows that they make up a much largerproportion of the top of the income range than of the bottom. Their share ofthe top of the distribution has grown rapidly since the late 1990s.
They made up less than afifth of the top 1% in 1997 but more than quarter 20 years later; 85% of thetotal growth in the income share of the top 1% since the late 1990s can beattributed to immigrants. Stripping them out leaves the income share of Britain’s top 1%similar to those in Italy, France and Sweden.
That is not to say thatimmigration caused the rise in inequality in Britain. If the country had nothad a big financial services sector and lowish personal taxes, rich foreignerswould not have come in such large numbers; had they not, there would still havebeen locals on six- and seven-figure salaries.
But the research impliesthat immigrants are responsible for a big chunk of the rise in top pay:immigrant top-one-percenters are paid 8% more than locals, and a third arrivedwithin the previous five years, suggesting they were headhunted for their specialist skills. Whatever the factors behind thegrowth, it has shaped British politics and society this century.
参考译文:
移民是否带来了不平等?
一份最新的报告显示,移民对极富阶层的崛起起到了重要作用
与欧亚大陆的国家相比,盎格鲁-撒克逊国家收入不平等现象加剧的情况更为严重,这一点无可争议。其原因在于税收政策、对金融服务的宽松监管、首席执行官的绩效薪酬以及文化等这些最为常见的问题。
但在最新发表的一篇论文中,华威大学的经济学家们通过对一组不同寻常的数据的分析,发现了另一个原因:移民。
研究人员对英国纳税人国民保险(NI)的数据进行了调查。这些数据都是匿名的,但英国人在16岁时就被分配了NI号码,因此那些在16岁以后被分配NI号码的人一定是移民。
人们往往认为移民都是穷人,但研究表明,他们在最高收入群体中所占的比例远远高于在最低收入群体中所占的比例。自上世纪90年代末以来,他们在高收入群体中所占的比例迅速增长。
1997年,他们在最富有的1%的群体中所占的比例不到五分之一,但在20年后,这一比例却超过了四分之一;自上世纪90年代末以来,收入最高的1%的群体总收入增长的85%可归因于移民。除去移民因素,英国最富的1%群体收入所占份额与意大利、法国和瑞典等国相近。
这并不是说移民导致了英国社会不平等现象的加剧。如果这个国家没有一个庞大的金融服务部门以及较低的个人所得税税率,那么就不会有这么多富裕的外国人前来:如果没有他们,仍然会有当地人拿着6至7位数的薪水。
但研究表明,移民对最高收入的增长起到了重要作用:在收入最高的1%的群体中,移民的平均工资比当地人高8%,并且三分之一的移民来到英国的时间不超过5年,这表明他们是因专业技能而被猎头挖来的。无论这种增长背后的因素是什么,它都塑造了本世纪的英国政治和社会。



谢谢阅读,对英文感兴趣,可以加我,注明“十分钟”


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