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[综合] 英语十分钟/为什么企业热衷于给应聘者做心理测试?

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发表于 2020-11-23 19:21:11 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
来自经济学人


      Companies are relying more and more on psychometric tests.
     Here is a test. Assign a score of 1 to 5, where 1 is “strongly agree” and 5 is “strongly disagree”, to the following  statement: “I really care about my work.” If you have answered that kind of question before, you have probably applied for a job at a large company. Psychometric tests, as they are called, have become increasingly popular.
    Eager job-seekers may think the answers to these questions are glaringly obvious. For any statement, give a response that creates a portrait of a diligent, collaborative worker. Of course, applicants care about their work, love collaborating with other people and pay careful attention to detail.
  But the people who set the tests know that candidates will respond this way. So questions are rephrased in many different ways to check that applicants are consistent and make it difficult for them to remember what they have already said.
  Aptitude tests are not a new idea. Intelligence tests have been around for a century and were popular with government departments. Charles Johnson, who has been involved in psychometric testing for 40 years and was responsible for constructing the tests used to recruit British civil servants, says the second world war had a big impact.
The British were impressed with the efficiency of German army officers and learned they had been selected with the help of intelligence tests. This led the British to create the War Office Selection Board. Alongside verbal and non-verbal reasoning, it challenged candidates with word-association exercises and being made to lead group discussions.
  For high-skilled jobs,these tests are useful. However, Mr Johnson says there is a risk with using such tests to recruit workers for low-skilled jobs. If you select people who pass sophisticated cognitive tests, they will learn the job quickly but will then get bored and leave.
  Psychometric tests became more popular from the 1970s onwards and are now seen as a useful way of sorting through the many candidates who apply for the jobs offered by big companies. “It is a laborious task to sort through thousands of written applications,” says Julia Knight, another occupational psychologist. “As well as being time consuming, it is not very effective and subject to bias.”
Questions in such tests may ask a candidate to describe their behaviour in hypothetical situations: dealing with an angry customer, for example. The suggested answers may all be plausible (apologise profusely, fetch a manager and soon), so there is no obviously “right” answer. Nevertheless the aim is to build a profile of the candidate to see if they have the right character traits for the job.
  People are generally judged on the basis of five characteristics with the acronym OCEAN for openness,conscientiousness, extroversion (or introversion), agreeableness and neuroticism. The ideal characteristics can be surprising: it turns out that introverts are the best train-drivers as they seem to pay more attention to details such as safety procedures and can cope with spending long periods of their time on their own.
  Extroverts do not make the best call-centre employees because they can spend so much time chatting to customers that they don’t get much done. The most useful trait among such workers, according to Steve Fletcher, an occupational psychologist, is assertiveness; this enables them to deal with more calls.

参考译文:

公司招聘越来越依赖于心理测试
   有一项测试,请根据下列陈述(例如,我很在乎我的工作。)打出1-5分,1分表示非常认同5分表示非常不认同。如果曾经做过此类测试,那么你很可能应聘过一些大公司的职位。这种所谓的心理测试正变得越来越流行。
    迫切的求职者或许认为,这些问题的答案都是显而易见的。无论题目怎么问,只需给出一个能够表现勤奋、乐于合作的员工形象的答案即可。显然,求职者在乎自己的工作、乐于与他人合作、非常注重细节之处。
但出题人也知道求职者会这样回答。因此,会以各种不同的方式反复提问,在求职者没有意识到的情况下,以验证其前后回答是否一致。
    能力倾向测试并不是什么新鲜事物。智力测试早在一个世纪前就已出现,并且深受政府部门的欢迎。从事心理测试工作40年之久的查尔斯·约翰逊专门负责为英国公务员考试出题,他认为心理测试深受二战的影响。
德国军官的高效给英国人留下了深刻的印象,而后英国人得知德国是通过智力测试来选拔军官的。这推动了英国陆军部选拔委员会的建立。除了语言推理和非语言推理外,申请者还需进行单词联想测试以及领导小组讨论。
   对于高技能岗位来说,这些测试还是有用的。不过,约翰逊指出,利用此类测试招募低技能岗位工人存在风险。如果你选择那些通过了复杂认知测试的求职者,他们很快就会掌握工作内容,但随后就会感到厌倦而离职。
   自上世纪70年代以来,心理测试变得越来越流行,如今许多大公司都将心理测试视为筛选求职者的必要方式。职业心理学家朱莉娅·奈特说道:“从成千上万份求职简历中筛选求职者不仅耗时费力、效率不高,而且容易产生偏见。”
此类测试会要求求职者描述他们在一些假象情况下的行为:例如,面对一位怒气冲冲的顾客应该怎么做。列出的答案或许都是可行的(不停地道歉、找经理来处理等),因此可能并没有显而易见的“正确”答案。然而,这类测试的目的是勾画出求职者的性格特征,以确认其能否胜任这份工作。
   人们通常会以五种性格特征(它们的首字母缩写为OCEAN,分别是开放性、尽责性、外倾性、合群性和神经质)来评价一个人。各类工作的理想性格特征或许会让人大吃一惊:内向的人能够成为最好的火车司机,这是因为他们更会关注到安全程序等细节问题,并且能够忍耐长期独处的时光。
   而外向的人一定不会成为呼叫中心的最佳员工,这是因为他们会花太多时间与客户聊天,因此只能完成有限的工作量。职业心理学家史蒂夫·弗莱彻表示,呼叫中心工作人员的最佳性格特征是自信,这一特质能使他们处理更多的电话。





备注:现在实习,找工作甚至升学都会遇到心理测试题,原来其渊源于此。




本周六(28号)晚上微信群有求职讲座,感兴趣的欢迎来听(注明求职)










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